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Winthrop University

Citation Styles: Chicago Style

This guide provides examples to help you document your sources of information.

Chicago Style is published by the University of Chicago.

"Chicago-style source citations come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. The notes and bibliography system is preferred by many working in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. The author-date system is more common in the sciences and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication." (The Chicago Manual of Style Online, 2017).

Chicago In-Text Citations

The Chicago Manual of Style can be used for most fields of study because it has two methods of citation creation -- the 'Notes and Bibliography' method and the 'Author-Date' method.


The Notes and Bibliography method is most often used by those in the humanities (history, literature, the arts, etc.). In-text citations for the Notes and Bibliography method use footnotes or endnotes which correspond to a number in the text.[1]The footnote or endnote includes a citation of the source and sometimes a note about the item cited. A footnote or endnote can be used for paraphrasing or direct quotes. If you use a source repeatedly, you would should put a full bibliographic citation of the source in the first footnote/endnote and a "shortened note" in subsequent footnotes/endnotes.[2]

[1] "Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide," The Chicago Manual of Style, 2017. Most word processors have footnotes or endnotes ready to be inserted and already formatted correctly -- if you're having trouble figuring out formatting, reach out to a librarian.

[2] "Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide" 2017.


The Author-Date method is most often used by those in the sciences or social sciences (biology, sociology, etc.). In-text citations for the Author-Date method uses parenthetical citations with the author's last name and year of publication and the page number when applicable (typically when there is a direct quote).

  • Paraphrase example: Due to their natural habitat, plants encounter a variety of microbes and thus regularly face the possibility of disease (Bari and Jones, 2009).
  • Direct quote example: "Plants defend themselves against most potential microbial pathogens through a basal defence mechanism (also called innate immune system)" (Bari and Jones, 2009, 473).

Chicago Citation Books

Chicago Bibliographic Citations

The two Chicago Style methods means there is also two methods for putting full bibliographic citations together.

The Notes and Bibliography method provides a great deal of flexibility for where full bibliographic citations go, but you will need to make sure full bibliographic citations are included somewhere! You can put them in  footnotes (which go at the bottom of the page) or in endnotes (which go at the end of a paper). If you chose to use footnotes, you can also have a list of full bibliography entries at the end of your paper that either correspond to your footnotes or are in alphabetical order. Regardless of where you choose to put your full bibliographic citations, each entry has crucial components in the order below:

  • Author Name
  • Title
  • Publication Place
  • Publisher
  • Year

Here is an example of a full bibliographic citation:

Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. London: Ward, Lock & Company, 1891.


The Author-Date method requires a reference list at the end of the paper; bibliographic entries should be in alphabetical order by author's last name. Author-Date bibliographic citations follow the same formula as the Notes and Bibliography method, seen above.


For more details about each Chicago Style citation method, see the links below!

Further Resources

You can find more information about Chicago format and citation style at the links below.